One thing we learned in reviewing the services listed here (and many more) is that even though the packages are very similar, they are not identical. Some are more security-focused than others, offering anti-spam and anti-malware tools. Others offer a variety of email marketing tools. While most of the hosts we've reviewed have built-in e-commerce, you may want to consider using a more-robust third-party online shopping cart application like Shopify instead.

A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet. Domain names are used in various networking contexts and for application-specific naming and addressing purposes. In general, a domain name identifies a network domain, or it represents an Internet Protocol (IP) resource, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, a server computer hosting a web site, or the web site itself or any other service communicated via the Internet. In 2017, 330.6 million domain names had been registered.[1]
Administrative contact. A registrant usually designates an administrative contact to manage the domain name. The administrative contact usually has the highest level of control over a domain. Management functions delegated to the administrative contacts may include management of all business information, such as name of record, postal address, and contact information of the official registrant of the domain and the obligation to conform to the requirements of the domain registry in order to retain the right to use a domain name. Furthermore, the administrative contact installs additional contact information for technical and billing functions.
The PRO web hosting will be the right fit for most small business websites. It includes automatic SSL protection, a free domain name registration, and delivers better performance (double the RAM, CPU, Disk throughput), enabling faster page loads and more simultaneous traffic to your website. It’s a great choice for WordPress, Joomla or Drupal sites expecting to receive several hundreds of visitors per day. It also includes Premium features such as Anycast DNS.
Think of the name you want to register. The answer is typically your company or website name. It is best to keep your domain name short and easy to understand. Say it out loud, and make sure it sounds great. Next, search to see if it is available. If the name you desire is taken with the .com top-level domain, there are hundreds of others available. Finally, add the top choices to your cart and complete the domain registration.
A Content Distribution Network (CDN) is a network of servers distributed geographically. The purpose of a CDN is to deliver content on the internet much faster. If a user in Toronto is trying to access your website, the closest server to them will take care of this. But someone coming to your website from Sydney, Australia, will be catered to by a server closest to them. The main host server holds your website content, and all the other servers have a cached version each.
Sorry Jezelll, had to throw a downvote. This is not what I would consider 'plain english' :( I don't have a problem with the intent of your definition, but using words like 'operation', 'remote server', 'invoked' and 'specification' makes it hard for beginners to understand. See Mitchel Sellers answer as an example of 'plain english'. – Dhaust Jun 30 '09 at 23:53
Do you feel like you’re fighting harder for customers’ business today than ever before? Ever wondered why you feel that way? It’s because customers have more control in today’s as-a-service world. They have more options and you’re one amongst many.  Molding your offerings and value propositions to the way our customers buy today is the best way to keep … Continue Reading...

Image hosts also allow tools such as the ability to create photoblogs/galleries with your images, or add them to a slide show for easier viewing. Some offer more advanced tools such as the ability for anl to ato an image they uploaded, sideloaders, or browser sidebars. Other hosts have introduced novel features such as the ability to automatically resize images down to a user-selected size. A Flickr tool allows one to upload photos using a camera phone with email capability.[1]


Google Photos is one of the best image hosting services for uploading high-quality photos in large quantities. The site has an automatic backup feature, so you don’t have to worry about losing any of your photos. Google Photos allows you to edit and organize your photos, and you can easily find older photos again with a visual search. As you use the platform more and more, it will recognize your photo habits and learn to automatically sort your photos, reducing the amount of work you need to do to keep your photos organized.
Another top site for easily sharing photos, Free Image Hosting is similar to Imgur but without the trendy layout and or the convenient hyperlink shortener. As long as you don't mind the ads all over the site, you can upload images without needing to create a free account first and Free Image Hosting provides you with the HTML code to a direct link to your photo so you can share it easily.
You can upload 20 photos per week with a free membership. If you purchase the annual membership for $25, you can upload unlimited photos, access online photography classes, and view statistics about your photos. The Pro membership also offers a listing in the site’s directory and a Pro Profile. The Pro+ membership provides you with a customizable website and an online store.
Like Flickr, 500px is a popular social network for photographers looking to share their best photos. It doesn't exactly compare to some of the alternatives discussed above because unfortunately, you can't directly link to photos if you want to share them elsewhere, but it's a fantastic option for photographers looking to show off their work and maybe make a little money from it.
Many web hosts offer limited features in their starter packages and then expand the offerings (sometimes tremendously) for higher-tier plans. Read the small print to make sure the plan you are selecting offers what you need. If you need a site builder application to design your website, make sure that the low-cost web host you are picking actually comes with a site builder. Many of them require you to pay for the builder as a separate add-on. Website builders usually don't cost a lot of money, but if you can find a web host that includes one for free, that's money in your pocket. And, if it's integrated with your hosting service, you're more likely to have a smooth, supported experience.
CloudLinux helps protect websites in a shared website hosting environment. If one of the websites on the servers gets attacked or gets a sudden growth in popularity and a lot of unexpected traffic, it will start draining all of the server resources, affecting other websites. CloudLinux makes sure this doesn’t happen. It will either slow down the website to stop it from hogging all resources or it will temporarily shut it down.
Second-level (or lower-level, depending on the established parent hierarchy) domain names are often created based on the name of a company (e.g., bbc.co.uk), product or service (e.g. hotmail.com). Below these levels, the next domain name component has been used to designate a particular host server. Therefore, ftp.example.com might be an FTP server, www.example.com would be a World Wide Web server, and mail.example.com could be an email server, each intended to perform only the implied function. Modern technology allows multiple physical servers with either different (cf. load balancing) or even identical addresses (cf. anycast) to serve a single hostname or domain name, or multiple domain names to be served by a single computer. The latter is very popular in Web hosting service centers, where service providers host the websites of many organizations on just a few servers. 

Image hosts also allow tools such as the ability to create photoblogs/galleries with your images, or add them to a slide show for easier viewing. Some offer more advanced tools such as the ability for anl to ato an image they uploaded, sideloaders, or browser sidebars. Other hosts have introduced novel features such as the ability to automatically resize images down to a user-selected size. A Flickr tool allows one to upload photos using a camera phone with email capability.[1]
Many desirable domain names are already assigned and users must search for other acceptable names, using Web-based search features, or WHOIS and dig operating system tools. Many registrars have implemented domain name suggestion tools which search domain name databases and suggest available alternative domain names related to keywords provided by the user.
Do you feel like you’re fighting harder for customers’ business today than ever before? Ever wondered why you feel that way? It’s because customers have more control in today’s as-a-service world. They have more options and you’re one amongst many.  Molding your offerings and value propositions to the way our customers buy today is the best way to keep … Continue Reading...
A directory called UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) defines which software system should be contacted for which type of data. So when one software system needs one particular report/data, it would go to the UDDI and find out which other systems it can contact for receiving that data. Once the software system finds out which other systems it should contact, it would then contact that system using a special protocol called SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol). The service provider system would first validate the data request by referring to the WSDL file, and then process the request and send the data under the SOAP protocol.

Web hosting services, on the other hand, run servers that are typically assigned only one or a few addresses while serving websites for many domains, a technique referred to as virtual web hosting. Such IP address overloading requires that each request identifies the domain name being referenced, for instance by using the HTTP request header field Host:, or Server Name Indication.


Running a website doesn’t have to be hard work! Our customer service experts & our Papa Squad are here for you at every stage of your website development. Need help registering a domain and configuring your email? We have everything covered! We’ll make sure that your website runs smoothly, loads quickly and is ready to handle the constantly evolving industry of internet marketing. Websites contain more data than ever before, and you need to know your web hosting company can provide you with the power and speed you need to keep your website running smoothly.
A web service is something that a website chooses to offer to those who wish to read, update and/or delete data from your website. You might call it a "backdoor" to your data. Instead of presenting the data as part of a webpage it is provided in a pre-determined way where some of the more popular are XML and JSON. There are several ways to communicate with a webservice, some use SOAP, others have REST'ful web services, etc.

W3Schools is optimized for learning, testing, and training. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic understanding. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. While using this site, you agree to have read and accepted our terms of use, cookie and privacy policy. Copyright 1999-2020 by Refsnes Data. All Rights Reserved.
Flickr is also a social networking site, so you can share your photos with the entire Flickr community. There are many groups for different interests and topics, including nature, black and white photography, and fashion. Users can favorite others’ photos and leave comments. If you want more privacy, you can edit your privacy settings so you’ll only share photos with selected individuals.
Running a website doesn’t have to be hard work! Our customer service experts & our Papa Squad are here for you at every stage of your website development. Need help registering a domain and configuring your email? We have everything covered! We’ll make sure that your website runs smoothly, loads quickly and is ready to handle the constantly evolving industry of internet marketing. Websites contain more data than ever before, and you need to know your web hosting company can provide you with the power and speed you need to keep your website running smoothly.
W3Schools is optimized for learning, testing, and training. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic understanding. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. While using this site, you agree to have read and accepted our terms of use, cookie and privacy policy. Copyright 1999-2020 by Refsnes Data. All Rights Reserved.
Image hosts also allow tools such as the ability to create photoblogs/galleries with your images, or add them to a slide show for easier viewing. Some offer more advanced tools such as the ability for anl to ato an image they uploaded, sideloaders, or browser sidebars. Other hosts have introduced novel features such as the ability to automatically resize images down to a user-selected size. A Flickr tool allows one to upload photos using a camera phone with email capability.[1]
Servant of God, well done, well hast thou fought The better fight, who single hast maintaind Against revolted multitudes the Cause Of Truth, in word mightier then they in Armes; And for the testimonie of Truth hast born Universal reproach, far worse to beare Then violence: for this was all thy care To stand approv'd in sight of God, though Worlds Judg'd thee perverse: the easier conquest now Remains thee, aided by this host of friends, Back on thy foes more glorious to return Then scornd thou didst depart, and to subdue By force, who reason for thir Law refuse, Right reason for thir Law, and for thir King MESSIAH, who by right of merit Reigns.
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Web services use something known as SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) for sending the XML data between applications. The data is sent over normal HTTP. The data which is sent from the web service to the application is called a SOAP message. The SOAP message is nothing but an XML document. Since the document is written in XML, the client application calling the web service can be written in any programming language.
By definition, a domain name is simply a human readable form of an IP address. In function it is the destination that you type into a web browser in order to visit a website, such a www.google.com. Metaphorically, it is very similar to how you would scroll to a contact in your cell phone rather than manually dialing the person by entering their full phone number; the phone number would be an IP address and the saved contact would be a domain name. Always buy a domain with a reputable domain registrar.
A few companies have offered low-cost, below-cost or even free domain registration with a variety of models adopted to recoup the costs to the provider. These usually require that domains be hosted on their website within a framework or portal that includes advertising wrapped around the domain holder's content, revenue from which allows the provider to recoup the costs. Domain registrations were free of charge when the DNS was new. A domain holder may provide an infinite number of subdomains in their domain. For example, the owner of example.org could provide subdomains such as foo.example.org and foo.bar.example.org to interested parties.
The character set allowed in the Domain Name System is based on ASCII and does not allow the representation of names and words of many languages in their native scripts or alphabets. ICANN approved the Internationalized domain name (IDNA) system, which maps Unicode strings used in application user interfaces into the valid DNS character set by an encoding called Punycode. For example, københavn.eu is mapped to xn--kbenhavn-54a.eu. Many registries have adopted IDNA.
Many organizations use multiple software systems for management.[citation needed] Different software systems often need to exchange data with each other, and a Web service is a method of communication that allows two software systems to exchange this data over the Internet. The software system that requests data is called a service requester, whereas the software system that would process the request and provide the data is called a service provider.

You could think of the sites that share your server as your roommates; there's really not that much separating you from them. Sure, you can close the bedroom door, but they can still cause nightmares for you in the kitchen and the bathroom. In web hosting terms, all the sites share a single server's resources, so huge traffic spike on Site A may impact the neighboring sites' performances. It's even possible that another site could take down the shared server altogether, if it crashed hard enough.
CDNs not only help the stability of your website by distributing the traffic among different servers, they can also help to prevent cyber attacks. If a hacker tries to gain access to the cached version of the website from the server closest to them, your original content will remain untouched. HostPapa always aims to provide you with the best website hosting features to ensure your visitors are always pleased with your website.
The term "Web service" describes a standardized way of integrating Web-based applications using the XML, SOAP, WSDL and UDDI open standards over an Internet Protocol backbone. XML is the data format used to contain the data and provide metadata around it, SOAP is used to transfer the data, WSDL is used for describing the services available and UDDI lists what services are available.
What is common for all web services is that they are the machine-readable equivelant to the webpages the site otherwise offers. This means that others who wish to use the data can send a request to get certain data back that is easy to parse and use. Some sites may require you to provide a username/password in the request, for sensitive data, while other sites allow anyone to extract whatever data they might need.

To display website content and access email, a domain name must connect to a web hosting account, a Cloud Server, or a Dedicated Server. Web Hosting Canada makes it easy for you to reserve your domain name while ordering a web hosting account. We include a free domain name registration with certain hosting packages. You can also associate multiple domain names with the same website, or multiple domains to separate websites on the same hosting account at no extra cost.


A Web service involves a service provider and a service requester (client). Because Web services feature language transparency, it doesn’t matter whether the underlying system that provides the service is written in Java while the client is written in Perl, Python or Ruby. For example, through Web services a Windows server can interact with a Linux server or serve an application to computer desktops, laptops or smart phones and other mobile devices over the World Wide Web.
With a web hosting plan from HostPapa, you’ll get a dedicated, professional IT team, without the cost! The Papa Squad is ready to tackle any of your web hosting issues, and we’re ready to help 24/7. The Papa Squad are technical customer service experts with the knowledge and experience to help you solve any web hosting challenge that your website may face. No matter how many visitors, the amount of traffic or the number of orders your website receives, we’re here to make sure your web hosting solution can handle it all.

A web service is any piece of software that makes itself available over the internet and uses a standardized XML messaging system. XML is used to encode all communications to a web service. For example, a client invokes a web service by sending an XML message, then waits for a corresponding XML response. As all communication is in XML, web services are not tied to any one operating system or programming language—Java can talk with Perl; Windows applications can talk with Unix applications.
W3Schools is optimized for learning, testing, and training. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic understanding. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. While using this site, you agree to have read and accepted our terms of use, cookie and privacy policy. Copyright 1999-2020 by Refsnes Data. All Rights Reserved.

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In the case of spam, the messages often include unique image URLs that are specific to that message only. The unique URL is used as a tracking ID, so that the image host can identify exactly what message intended for what specific recipient has been viewed, in addition to the date and host accessing the image. This is why many email reading systems do not show images by default, to protect the reader from having their reading of spam being tracked by the email senders.
Critics often claim abuse of administrative power over domain names. Particularly noteworthy was the VeriSign Site Finder system which redirected all unregistered .com and .net domains to a VeriSign webpage. For example, at a public meeting with VeriSign to air technical concerns about SiteFinder,[25] numerous people, active in the IETF and other technical bodies, explained how they were surprised by VeriSign's changing the fundamental behavior of a major component of Internet infrastructure, not having obtained the customary consensus. SiteFinder, at first, assumed every Internet query was for a website, and it monetized queries for incorrect domain names, taking the user to VeriSign's search site. Unfortunately, other applications, such as many implementations of email, treat a lack of response to a domain name query as an indication that the domain does not exist, and that the message can be treated as undeliverable. The original VeriSign implementation broke this assumption for mail, because it would always resolve an erroneous domain name to that of SiteFinder. While VeriSign later changed SiteFinder's behaviour with regard to email, there was still widespread protest about VeriSign's action being more in its financial interest than in the interest of the Internet infrastructure component for which VeriSign was the steward.
A directory called UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration) defines which software system should be contacted for which type of data. So when one software system needs one particular report/data, it would go to the UDDI and find out which other systems it can contact for receiving that data. Once the software system finds out which other systems it should contact, it would then contact that system using a special protocol called SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol). The service provider system would first validate the data request by referring to the WSDL file, and then process the request and send the data under the SOAP protocol. 

You don’t need to create an account to upload images to Use, but you can make your photos public or private. Use offers a photo editor and image re-sizer, and you can also organize your photos into albums. The site doesn’t give direct links, but you can right-click on your photos to copy the image URL, or you can use the site’s social sharing buttons to post your uploads to social media sites.
The character set allowed in the Domain Name System is based on ASCII and does not allow the representation of names and words of many languages in their native scripts or alphabets. ICANN approved the Internationalized domain name (IDNA) system, which maps Unicode strings used in application user interfaces into the valid DNS character set by an encoding called Punycode. For example, københavn.eu is mapped to xn--kbenhavn-54a.eu. Many registries have adopted IDNA.
W3Schools is optimized for learning, testing, and training. Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic understanding. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. While using this site, you agree to have read and accepted our terms of use, cookie and privacy policy. Copyright 1999-2020 by Refsnes Data. All Rights Reserved.

A Content Distribution Network (CDN) is a network of servers distributed geographically. The purpose of a CDN is to deliver content on the internet much faster. If a user in Toronto is trying to access your website, the closest server to them will take care of this. But someone coming to your website from Sydney, Australia, will be catered to by a server closest to them. The main host server holds your website content, and all the other servers have a cached version each.


Unlike shared or VPS hosting, dedicated hosting makes your website the lone tenant on a server. To extend the housing metaphor, having a dedicated server is like owning your own home. The means that your website taps the server's full power, and pays for the privilege. If you're looking for a high-powered site—an online mansion for your business—dedicated hosting is the way to go. That said, many dedicated web hosting services task you with handling backend, technical issues, much as homeowners have manage maintenance that renters generally leave to their landlords.
TinyPic is owned by Photobucket, so it offers many of the same features. However, you don’t need to create an account to upload photos, so you can quickly and easily upload a photo for sharing. To upload a photo, you simply select the image, add tags if you want to, and set the size of the photo. You’ll get a link that you can use to share a photo anywhere. The optional tags will allow TinyPic users to find your photos through a search.
A Content Distribution Network (CDN) is a network of servers distributed geographically. The purpose of a CDN is to deliver content on the internet much faster. If a user in Toronto is trying to access your website, the closest server to them will take care of this. But someone coming to your website from Sydney, Australia, will be catered to by a server closest to them. The main host server holds your website content, and all the other servers have a cached version each.

Recent Examples on the Web Muhstik relies on multiple command-and-control domains and IP addresses, presumably for redundancy in the event one gets taken down. — Dan Goodin, Ars Technica, "Internet routers running Tomato are under attack by notorious crime gang," 21 Jan. 2020 More sophisticated phishing attacks often use web domains that are similar to well-known addresses but that are slightly misspelled. — David Ingram, NBC News, "From Burisma to Democratic candidates, phishing emails remain security threat," 15 Jan. 2020 Authorities said Adams tried to buy the domain, but the owner repeatedly declined to sell it. — Anna Spoerre, USA TODAY, "Social media influencer Polo sentenced after man held at gunpoint over web domain," 11 Dec. 2019 Microsoft has even gone to court to take over web domains created to lure those who fall for its tricks. — Nicole Perlroth, New York Times, "Microsoft Says Russians Hacked Antidoping Agency Computers," 28 Oct. 2019 Of course, with the relevant emphasis on space as a war fighting domain. — Joe Pappalardo, Popular Mechanics, "The Air Force's Most Famous Pilot School Is Going To Space," 3 Sep. 2019 Of the 53 districts in Texas with more than 25,000 students, San Antonio ISD had the largest improvement in the student achievement domain and the second-largest in student progress, Morath said. — Krista Torralva, ExpressNews.com, "TEA report card has SAISD leading broad improvement of San Antonio area schools," 15 Aug. 2019 This country’s great error has been to separate these domains from each other, investing big business with the godlike power that really belongs in the hands of experts who respect their animals—like Hatidze. — Josephine Livingstone, The New Republic, "Honeyland Is a Stinging Allegory for Man-Made Disaster," 9 Aug. 2019 Microsoft removed the domain and with the help of the government prevented the attack from actually gaining access, Burt said. — Hannah Knowles, The Denver Post, "House intelligence chairman says he learned of Senate campaign hack at security forum in Aspen," 21 July 2019
In the first quarter of 2015, 294 million domain names had been registered.[17] A large fraction of them are in the com TLD, which as of December 21, 2014, had 115.6 million domain names,[18] including 11.9 million online business and e-commerce sites, 4.3 million entertainment sites, 3.1 million finance related sites, and 1.8 million sports sites.[19] As of July 2012 the com TLD had more registrations than all of the ccTLDs combined.[20]
ICANN publishes the complete list of TLD registries and domain name registrars. Registrant information associated with domain names is maintained in an online database accessible with the WHOIS protocol. For most of the 250 country code top-level domains (ccTLDs), the domain registries maintain the WHOIS (Registrant, name servers, expiration dates, etc.) information.
An organism or cell on or in which a parasite lives or feeds.♦ A definitive host is an organism in which a parasite reaches sexual maturity. The anopheles mosquito is the definitive host for the malaria plasmodium because, while the mosquito is not adversely affected by the plasmodium's presence, it is the organism in which the plasmodium matures and reproduces.♦ An intermediate host is an organism in which a parasite develops but does not attain sexual maturity. Humans and certain other vertebrates are the intermediate host of the malaria plasmodium.♦ A paratenic host is an organism which may be required for the completion of a parasite's life cycle but in which no development of the parasite occurs. The unhatched eggs of nematodes are sometimes carried in a paratenic host such as a bird or rodent. When a predator eats the paratenic host, the eggs are ingested as well.
Web services are almost like normal a web page. The difference is that they are formatted to make it very easy for a program to pull data from the page, to the point of probably not using any HTML. They generally also are more reliable as to the consistency of the format, may use a different formal process to define the content such soap or raw xml, and there is often also a descriptor document that formally defines the structure for the data.
An important function of domain names is to provide easily recognizable and memorizable names to numerically addressed Internet resources. This abstraction allows any resource to be moved to a different physical location in the address topology of the network, globally or locally in an intranet. Such a move usually requires changing the IP address of a resource and the corresponding translation of this IP address to and from its domain name.
The term "Web service" describes a standardized way of integrating Web-based applications using the XML, SOAP, WSDL and UDDI open standards over an Internet Protocol backbone. XML is the data format used to contain the data and provide metadata around it, SOAP is used to transfer the data, WSDL is used for describing the services available and UDDI lists what services are available.
Hello, thanks for this site! I’m looking for a photo-sharing site that will allow me to share about 200 photos with friends. I have already organized and titled them in iPhoto and want that organization and those titles imported as well. I don’t want to have to organize and title twice. And I’d like the title to show up when they view the photo. Such a site exists maybe? Thank you!
Sorry Jezelll, had to throw a downvote. This is not what I would consider 'plain english' :( I don't have a problem with the intent of your definition, but using words like 'operation', 'remote server', 'invoked' and 'specification' makes it hard for beginners to understand. See Mitchel Sellers answer as an example of 'plain english'. – Dhaust Jun 30 '09 at 23:53
Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. Domain names are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as the prominent domains com, info, net, edu, and org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users who wish to connect local area networks to the Internet, create other publicly accessible Internet resources or run web sites.
Domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. Domain names are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as the prominent domains com, info, net, edu, and org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users who wish to connect local area networks to the Internet, create other publicly accessible Internet resources or run web sites.
Interoperability amongst applications - Web services allow various applications to talk to each other and share data and services among themselves. All types of applications can talk to each other. So instead of writing specific code which can only be understood by specific applications, you can now write generic code that can be understood by all applications
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